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Autonomous controlled robotic arm technology and telecommuting. Part 1.

The robot can work both independently and in communication with the server in the local network and the Internet. The robot can connect from the outside and take control by manipulating objects in the home, in the office, at work or a different environment in the indoor or outdoor environment.
These new technologies up to virtual environments will live outside cities, in virtually any favorable for life settlement, with no problems and an acceptable level of comfort remotely perform most types of work. There will be no need for frequent movement physically, which would relieve the transport and save on travel time, fuel and energy, depreciation of vehicles, reduce the number of accidents, improve the health of people. Will have a lot more positive effects.
The introduction of a robotic arm as an important direction of remote presence would solve many traffic problems and reduce transport costs caused by the need for personal presence in your work environment - which is particularly important for the features of geography and climate of Russia. Telecommuting opportunities will form a single sound economic environment ("cloud"), free from the location of local environments (offices, factories, etc.), which in addition to reducing transportation costs (including the cost of time, energy, health, the risks of accidents and t . etc.) will allow users to take part in the most appropriate of its work and projects, and the living and being in the arbitrary and convenient for them cities of Russia and other countries. This will develop the optimal life-and cost-effective network of small towns and villages instead overcrowded cities with their lack of space, traffic and too expensive property:
Together, these measures will reduce the various costs and expenses to a minimum and increase the efficiency of the Russian economy to the maximum level of competition compared with the housekeeper, other countries that are in a more favorable geographic and climatic situation.
- The goal of the project:
Develop as simple, reliable, safe for the user and the working environment, low-cost, versatile, scalable, high-speed robot with powerful intellectual interaction with the user and the work environment that can help to optimize the interaction between the user and the environment by remote control.

- Scientific and technical rationale:
Robotic arm will be mounted on the chassis body, equipped with 2-manipulator arms, and 2-3-cameras-eye for recognizing the shape of objects and space - that is, was very similar to the structure of the human body. Just pointing device may have its own operating system (if it is independent and not connected to the general manager of the center) for the control of movements. A user is physically located in one place, can see everything that he sees the manipulator in a different place and control its movements. Program touchpad can help the user to make small movements that require precision, for example, recognize and vectorize space objects for sharp image transmission bandwidth savings and precise manipulation safe, targeted at objects, to help make accurate typical actions having the details, and links with other objects, ie possible to predict the user's intent, safeguard against various harmful actions. Thus, the operation of the manipulator will be comfortable enough to work remotely and will not move to work physically. In most modern professions can use telepresence technology with the successful use of the manipulator: the profession of intellectual and physical labor, light, harmful to human health or the environment contrary sterile environment, greenhouse farming in particular and agriculture in general. Given the level of technology, even a pilot model of the robot will be able to lift objects weighing up to 10 kg. each of the two manipulators from the lowest point (from the floor), and the two manipulators - up to 20 kg. At the same time be able to manipulate tiny objects, probably even better than a man, particularly in the application of specialized manipulators.
- Application:
- Key features:
--- In life and in the home:
---- In standalone mode, or control (for connecting the controller and taking control of a robot): washing dishes, clean and tidy, pet grooming, and household repairs.
The advantages of a remote control room at the household robot is that it eliminates the need for personnel entry into the premises, will enable staff (or accompanying consulting firm) to serve multiple clients remotely. When providing remote access connection software will set the rules and regulations to protect certain areas of the room (space) the filter is used (eg, visual) to staff (individual person or group) saw (or rather, perceived) only work areas that will not for them secret. In addition, staff can set permissions and restrictions on the movement in any particular field (areas of the territory), and the time limit. Thus, different plug actors can provide different access rights to different workspaces to individual objects and their groups. You can set permissions so that the robot will broadcast images of the object manager (or shape), and do not allow to manipulate (touch them).
--- Office Work:
---- Manipulation documents, objects.
---- Probably even possible to put the signature by regular or special additional manipulators.
---- Visual, sound and interaction with others, and given the fact that the robot can rotate freely "face" and move. For a full visual interaction can be equipped with a robot monitor, which will be televised image of a face attached to it a person or other necessary information to communicate. The presence speakers also assumed.
---- To a single robotic arm can be many employees connectivity, creating a queue or letting the robot standard tasks that the robot can perform offline. In the latter case, you can use the wizard - a graphical environment, showing the working environment (office environment and objects), over which the mouse technology Drag And Drop (drag and drop objects), you can specify an action plan for objects. Robot will execute the plan as the release of other problems. Problems can set the level of urgency and importance of the robot counted prioritize tasks and perform tasks according to priorities. Priorities of various tasks and task types can be specified in advance by default according to the rules of the organization. If your organization operate several robots, they may be subject to the same server (one operating system), which will distribute the tasks among the robots.
--- The zones are dangerous to humans
--- In areas where human presence is undesirable or prohibited in order to prevent entry of foreign substances and organisms (eg, laboratory).
- Additional functions in standalone mode:
- Security functions.
- Ventilation and monitoring of atmospheric composition for the presence of harmful gases and impurities.
- Elimination of harmful lesions (spread of fire, gas leaks and water, and call transfer management professionals who can troubleshoot problems with dispatching).
- Advanced functions in standalone mode:
- Child-care:
--- Monitoring the behavior of children.
--- Caution children from dangerous situations and behaviors, contact with dangerous objects, tracking of health status.
--- Intelligent video to demonstrate the behavior of parents and nannies. Calling parents or carers with complex situations.
--- Entertainment children:
---- Games
---- Reading fairy tales and stories
---- Other joint actions.
- Functions of the cook.
- Care for people with disabilities
- Since the robot (or rather, a robot control system) will be very familiar with the way of life of (as one of the processes operating environment), you will be able to serve as a diary, to recall events, to give advice and tips to monitor the state health of the owner and other people, to adjust to conditions and habits. Knowing the habits of user robot will be able to anticipate the needs of the user. In the event of an emergency, be able to quickly find the knowledge base recommendations for further action.
- The robot will be able through networks (including WiFi) to be always in touch with the right people, such as contact with the owners of a mobile phone, giving any information of interest.
- The robot can mediate between people and a global network, clarifying and formalizing the wishes of the people as a ready query. Since the robot is, as mentioned above, will be better able to know the characteristics and needs of people interact with it, to create the most likely request that matches the situation and environment.
- The robot can perform organizational and secretarial functions in any of the processes, deeds, events. Ie able to associate or to help connect people with each other in the course of a project.
- Move:
- Chassis:
--- Wheels: driven by electric motors.
---- Rear: large inclination: 2 pieces
Inclined wheels provide increased stability, the overall compactness, maneuverability and extra cushioning suspension. Similarly arranged some wheelchairs.
---- Front: small lines: 2 pieces
2 front wheels (instead of one) provide support for the expansion of detachable robot forward. The front wheels can be rotate each separately (as in a car) or on a common axis. To ensure stability of the robot is desirable that the wheels turn individually without disturbing the reference circuit.
The robot will be able to enjoy flights of stairs, using his manipulators and leaning on railing (and people). Also, it can overcome high thresholds indoor manipulators based on the floor and lifting the front wheels. In the fall (or rather, heaping on his side or "back"), the robot will be able to rise again.
The width of the chassis must be such as to pass into the doorway width of 600 mm.
To stabilize during handling heavy objects all heavy equipment (batteries, compressors, engines, etc.) should be placed on the chassis. In addition, the chassis can be equipped with a sliding bar (similar to those which are equipped with cranes) that the robot can be used for lifting heavy objects and provide additional stability when performing procedures.
- Package: arc, forming triangles frame.
- Manipulators:
Cylinders, which are placed at the ends of the brush-grips. The air in the cylinders coming from the diffuser, controlled movements of the robot control system. Pneumatic actuators have several advantages over electric: produce higher effort, faster action, less noise, have a high reliability and durability due to their lightweight and less-used items, you must have less necessary electrical, which increases the safety handles.
For simplicity and reliability of the design of the pilot model is preferable to use cylinders as controls (such as crane-boom), but maybe in the future it will be better to use the paddles as jointed links where pneumatics will supply links to efforts by bending at the knees manipulator (as Excavator).
To perform many operations in the vertical direction should be the impact (speed and force) in excess of the weight and acceleration of gravity manipulators. Therefore it is necessary to use two-way pneumatic cylinders, in which air is blown on both sides of the piston, which will speed up the arm and tell him artificial effort not only from the bottom up, but from the top down. For other kinds of movements also characterized by back-and-forth mode, so the use of bi-directional pneumatic justified in almost all sites.
At the base of cylinders is likely to make rational use of contrast, the energy was spent mainly on the movement and not overcome the weight of the manipulator. However, if necessary, mainly fast movements and light weight manipulators balances will create resistance to movement due to inertia. But, most likely, due to the small size of the counterweight and the small value of the lever inertia will not arise. Controllers are designed for fairly rough go as precise movements must be carried brushes, so the use of compact balances justified.
Manipulator reference air cylinder end advisable to rely not on the base of the air cylinder, and as close to the center of the cylinder. Thus, the air cylinder as the swing arm will be based on a central part of its "shoulders" of the robot rotates on the shoulder joints. This will: increase the length of the air cylinder and increase the extraction stroke (stroke), the nomination will leave the cylinder maximum of the stem, it would be better to provide a pneumatic cylinder with a load strength in bending (eg, weight lifting) will allow the air cylinder to the base of the robot arm to attach another backup reference air cylinder, which will move the arm with great force, as well as to inform the pad not only vertical but also horizontal movements partially. In addition, the use of two-way or obratnonapravlennyh main and backup cylinders allow for movement of manipulators used primarily function retracting rod, and not pushing (for example, picked up the goods will not work the main stronghold air cylinder, ejector rod and the lifting arm, and back-air cylinder, and stem retracts pulling the end of the robot arm), which will provide work on the pneumatic expansion, not contraction, ensuring their structural strength without the need to have sufficient bending strength and limitations of stem segment, which would leave the cylinder when it is ejected.
Probably the main and backup system cylinders (due to their location at an angle to the manipulator pneumatic cylinders) will be sufficient to inform the pad horizontal movements that require much less effort than the vertical. If for horizontal movements, additional efforts will be necessary to set a corresponding elements. Unfortunately, the design of the robot is no room for free arrangement of pneumatic cylinders, which would provide a large enough manipulators move in a horizontal plane, without interfering with the motion of other structural elements. As a compromise solution, you can use a belt drive system, driven by either electric or pneumatic cylinders (as shown in the model: pneumatic cylinders, pulling ropes from the front of the robot). Or use pnevmotsilidry, pneumatic cylinders are parallel manipulator (as shown in the model: pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic cylinders at the rear end amnipulyatora).
The system will be located diffuser pressure sensors that control the pressure applied to each of the cylinders, and thus determine the force applied by the manipulator to the object. Force monitoring will prevent overloading of structural elements and hazardous unstable states. If it is impossible for any action arising congestion robot will calculate and try different positions and approaches that can safely perform the action or with the lowest risk of loss of stability and overloading.
The nature of loads on cranes will be mainly of two types: fast idle and loaded with slow motion. For the first type of movement required with a large volume of low pressure air to form the second - on the contrary. Air injection and its accumulation in the tanks - not the optimal process. Therefore, to use either two air distribution systems - high and low pressure, or simultaneously with the force parallel to the pneumatic cylinders pneumatic cylinders use a motor with a small cross section that will produce fast idle motion.
Hand-grips resemble hands. Rough variant: consist of conditional lower rigidly fixed part (the analog of the thumb), and the top mobile (3 independent of the fingers, the middle of which is located in front of the lower finger analogy more). An example of a more accurate version is similar to the hand of man:, which will be important for the mobility of the big toe, but not necessarily the presence of even a little finger and ring. May be advisable to compromise may be the option of 2-3 lower fingers and 3-top, which open and close with the help of small bidirectional pnevmotsilidrov. If you provide the ability to change the gap between the fingers and the shift of the upper and lower rows of fingers against each other (which is technically difficult), or if your fingers to squeeze in the ranks is not everything, and in one, it is possible to ensure the passage of the fingers of one row to another, and thus capture of small diameter rods (like a mop handle). Or you can perform a secure grip rods special additional manipulator, located next to the main one (for example, in "wrist", or on both sides of the rows of teeth.)
Brush advisable to equip its own diffuser. This will ensure accuracy and tiny movements, as well as this will lead up to the brush compressed air with the possibility of free unlimited rotation brush axis manipulator.
To improve the fixation of objects can be used miniprisoski (diameter of a few millimeters), from which air is pumped compressor (or negative pressure in the tire.) As a framework, you can use hand-arm of a strong grid with a mesh of 3-5 mm, which stretched rubber "glove". Under the glove of a negative pressure that pulls tight glove on frame-grille and pull-sections of rubber in the cell skeleton gives the effect of a set of suction cups needed to keep things slippery (wet dishes, glassware).
Repeating possible human hand paddles will be versatile for a variety of tasks. For specialized tasks can use interchangeable or additional manipulators, at least, "brushes".
- Propulsion:
Battery, air compressor, compressed air storage tank can be located directly on the chassis, and make external to the robot, the robot is connected to the hose and the power cord. When using an external compressor, tank and power to the robot chassis can also be a reserve - in this case, at the termination of the power supply and the supply from external sources robot will be able to use self-contained, for example, to complete an important task or operation, and to pursue the identification and elimination feed problems of supply from external sources, to have time to ask for the help of people.
If the operation of the robot will be in dark places that the robot can place solar panels in the event of the termination of the external power supply and backup battery and the battery is recharged slowly dozapityvali robot, allowing it to at least find a safe place and external power source.
Part of the site should be protected from moisture.
- Computer Architecture:
Rationally on the robot motion control only, and all processing is done on a local network server. Communication with the server can be on wifi and / or main cables. Wifi can ensure the transfer of up to 30 MB / sec, which is sufficient for remote visual management and transmission of video data to the server for processing. But initially, to simplify the development, all control can be placed on the robot.
- Spatial orientation:
--- Scanning space:
--- Video of the object:
---- FullHD: at least 1 piece: for the most accurate detection of object properties.
---- With a lower resolution: at least 2 of them: to build a spatial model of the room, the shapes of objects and expansion angle (so that there is less of a closed view of the object surface). Together with FullHD-camera will determine the shape of objects that were manipulated. The cameras can be as separated from each other on a large base.
---- Spherical Camera: at least 1 piece: In order to cover the entire space. The cameras can be as separated from each other on a large base.
--- Cameras at the ends of the manipulators to oversee the operation of the brush, objects and processes in the contact brush (optional). Expedient to allocate cameras on 2-3 pieces for detecting the spatial geometry.
--- Sensors (sensors):
---- Laser scanning space (optional).
---- Ultrasound scanning space (optional).
---- Sound sensors (microphones).
Thermal ---- (optional).
---- Thermometer.
---- Probe the atmospheric composition, humidity / smoke (optional).
- The platform for the senses
Video cameras and various sensors to the organs of perception. Senses are needed to monitor the current task and control the environment and external events. In man, all senses are combined on a single platform - the head, which imposes certain restrictions, forced to interrupt the current task and distracted, in response to external events. The robot will be rational to divide into two bodies of the platform (ie, equipped with two "heads"): one to control the current task in a limited area, and the other - for the control of the environment. Joints ("neck") of both platforms-heads can operate independently. Spherical video cameras, microphones, thermal imager, scanners space will be treated to the platform environment control. High Resolution - for the control of the current task. But for simple models and pilot senses as a man can be combined on a single platform.
In contrast to the man's neck "neck" robot can be made in the form of a telescopic pneumatic cylinder, which will move in and "looking at" highly placed objects without the need for any tools and ladders. Just for the simple model is sufficient to use the "neck", pull straight up, probably with the possibility of a small bias or the possibility of placing the platform at the end of the air cylinder to the bracket, allowing the platform to move the same in the horizontal plane. In contrast to the human head platform robot, equipped with a sense organs will be lightweight enough - probably not more than 1 kilogram.
In the case of the two platforms, "neck" platform environmental control can be elongating vertically without the possibility of slope, and the "neck" platform will initially control problems under variable angle to the vertical.
One of the main problems when using the robot will be shaking, cause motion manipulators, and transmitted to the senses, which negatively affects the quality of camera images. Used to suppress the shaking many ways: depreciation manipulators stedikamy (Steadicam) and image processing software. But probably in some cases it would be appropriate to place the organs of perception to a separate chassis coupled to a chassis that hosts the manipulators - in this case, shaking will not actually be transmitted. In some cases, the senses can be on a completely independent mechanical gear or other devices that greatly eliminate any possible transmission of vibrations, allowing you to monitor any side on the manipulator, or even perform a completely independent supervisory tasks, moving independently and separately from the manipulator.


Tags: robot, robotic arm, telecommuting, virtual environment

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