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Autonomous controlled robotic arm technology and telecommuting. Part 2.

- Software:
- Program management pistons and manipulators:
Controlled visually and / or gyroscopes the pistons and / or spatial location-hand paddle, and based on that supplied the necessary impact on the pistons for ongoing operations. Thus, adaptive control pistons (as in humans - with a constant feedback in the form of control provisions in the space of finite-brush). Similarly it is possible to manage all the sites in general, and not compute power to each node (motor or compressor) separately in order to achieve the overall amount of the vector and displacement.
- Manipulation of objects:
A robot must explore and identify all of the items that will be affected - to find out their properties. Part of the common prototypes describing the properties can be included in the database robot, part missing sludge can request updated data on servers in the Internet (in the cloud), where the base can be constantly updated and refined by maintenance personnel, and the experience of robots. Properties characterize the value of the object to its tilting capabilities and touch, for example, to fragile and valuable obketami handled carefully with a preliminary diagnosis of all the nodes that will be used to perform a task, and then re-test the health of individual nodes before performing specific manipulations, or in the case of strength and / or the recoverability of the object - less care and more quickly.
Object properties also include:
--- Key:
---- Weight and its distribution by volume;
---- Strength and its distribution by volume;
---- Features friction surface (skolzskosti) adjusted on surface (if the surface, for example, wet, dusty, soapy, oily, icy, hot or cold).
---- Standard methods for the capture of object manipulation and rules with him (to tilt and turn, shake, throw);
--- Options object changes over time:
---- Simple discrete states of objects: for example, the state of utensils and surfaces: clean or dirty.
---- More complex:
----- The gradual change of the state of the object (eg, plants) and the need for action (maintenance, irrigation) as a Tamagotchi;
----- Observing the behavior of animals, feeding the hungry animals and cleaning them. In the case of animals - voice recognition, intonation and habits.
--- Aim and capture object control department at:
Program targeting: video monitors facing direction controller (person) relative to the image on the monitor and select an object in view, as well as one object in focus. With flick of the wrist / hand controller (related to the manipulator) is ready to capture the object brush robot. Slight compression brush Manager - the object is captured and held by the robot with a brush.
Program touchpad can help the user to make precise movements: extinguish trembling hands Manager, recognize and vectorize space objects for sharp image transmission bandwidth savings and precise manipulation safe, targeted at objects, to help make accurate typical actions having the details, and links with other objects - that is, possible to predict the user's intent, safeguard against various harmful actions. Thus the work of the manipulator will be comfortable enough to work remotely and will not move to work physically.
--- Actions on objects:
For information about which standard actions are made in relation to the various subjects, the program will prompt this action manager: for example, if the light is taken in hand, the program selects the associated objects (lamps and bases), which are taken in the light bulb can be tightened. Moreover, if the manager approves an easy gesture that action, confirming their intention, the more the robot itself, the action that is in this example is tightening the bulb, freeing the operator from routine activities.
--- Safety manipulation:
If the object is moved by air, even if the person in error decompresses manipulator - a robot, knowing the ultimate goal of action and properties of a portable object (if the object is fragile and will break if dropped or drop it in the area of ​​space is useless or even harmful for other processes) , recognizes the error and will not weaken the grip as long as the object is in the safe location of the space (for example, a crystal vase will not be installed on a flat, solid surface). The program should calculate the levels of immunity (propriety, harmony), the object in a point in space, and the probability of risk, the risk of negative impact on the state of the object of any processes (running children and pets, the proximity to the passage) or the risk of negative impact of the facility on these processes. If the manager is trying to put an object in the wrong place, the program will alert you or asks for confirmation. The robot can not perform any action with the unidentified objects. Or it may attempt to identify objects: measurement of the mass, the material and other characteristics of these features with the identified object. The degree of accuracy of identification and the use of heuristic methods to identify a user may specify. For safety and / or non-critical environments, and individual safe zones can prevent the use of heuristic methods approximate identification and determination of properties of the object and its likely destination.
When supplying thermal imaging robot will see dangerous objects heated, serve food and drinks to people of optimum temperature, warn people contact or drinking too hot food or other media and objects.
--- Monitors processes, learning and adaptation:
In addition to the preset default settings on the interaction between objects and processes of the program can keep statistics of these processes, ie, implement monitoring processes to adapt to the conditions.
- The development of the project, update the program and data security issues:
In the case of an open source project in whole or in separate units of the database object properties and processes may be available to the public to use and edit. Similarly, any programs and robot control. The openness of the project is particularly important because the robot is very much integrated into the activities of man, in his private and intimate sphere, which may be an invasion by the robot. For similar reasons, the robot control system (or group of robots) should be as autonomous from external networks, external connections to the pad, and workspaces for external connections, maximum protection and limited rights. Should be a system that monitors the level of protection, signaling and warning in cases where any rights critically different from those standards, ie If any personnel entrusted with too much power as compared with the default standard for this type of personnel. Administrative access (with root-access) is desirable only when working directly with the control system, and not on the network.
If successful, the tasks and activities of any existing knowledge can be sent to the cloud and the knowledge base used by other robots.
The robot can be integrated into a system of "smart house": obtain from the additional information about the objects and perform actions, including direct command of "smart house". In other words, the system of "smart house" may not have their own manipulators and other effectors, and use the robot for the purpose of mechanical impact. The same robot can receive information from the home technology: as for recognizing a person (for example, sound and light signals), as designed for the automated control systems for communication channels.
The authors believe and insist that this development should be an open project of all its components. The project is important for the improvement of remote presence and automate routine residential, commercial and office work. Maximum development of remote presence, including this project robotic arm will allow people to reduce their movement and physical contact, saving time and money, allowing you to be and to live at great distances from the working environment. This will relieve transport, get rid of traffic jams, will live out of overcrowded cities, will develop a network of small towns and villages (see http://stranger-live.livejournal.com/5113.html), optimal for the life and development of people and not to perform various work processes currently required personal presence.
Nodes robot can borrow from other projects robots: http://freeio.org/2013/01/the-state-of-free-hardware-for-robotics/, primarily from projects "Amigo" (http://www .roboticopenplatform.org / wiki / AMIGO), "Veter" (http://veterobot.com/) and "Bobbi" (http://www.bobbierobotics.nl/). Just the closest analogue is: development robot butler http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2013/household-robot-0327.html (http://www.csail.mit.edu), which offer many the same principles of "thinking" robots, and robots already existing IRT (http://www.jsk.tu-tokyo.ac.jp/research/irt/).
For specialized environments can use different versions of a robot manipulator.
Further development of the technology seen in the direction of the authors of virtual environments: http://stranger-live.livejournal.com/14061.html
Quality telepresence capabilities will facilitate the organization of community-oriented living environment rather than production-oriented, leading to the deterioration of the living space of people are forced to live in overcrowded and over-concentrated and polluted communities, suffering as well and huge transport costs, which in also leads to consumption becoming scarce fuel.
The project will be important to the economies of resource-oriented projects such as "Venus".
In my opinion, one of the communities of the "Venus" to become virtual. Many people share the principles of resource based housekeeper and social equality, but tied to his current life, family and the community. However, if you create a "cloud", a global international virtual working environment with opportunities for collaboration and communication, controls the robots and remote sensing technology in general - you can start manufacturing a product or manage any processes necessary for the development of the project, provide each any other services as possible for free. In other words, it's a new level with the possibility of freelancing physical penetration into material production environments and processes with robotic manipulators. However, most common processes and operations will not require knowledge of foreign languages, because the typical processes can organize, equip universal graphic labels and gestures. Instructions standard actions can be translated into other languages, and the translation of the instructions for continued relevance and accuracy can be editable by all users in the same way as it is implemented in Wikipedia.
In other words, you can create a virtual economic environment, a virtual "city", uniting all comers, regardless of the actual place of residence or location. This environment will also be part of resursoorinetirovannoy economy with technology telecommuting.
Probably the construction and development of new settlements rational for remote robotic arm (which can be controlled from anywhere where there is access to the Internet, that is, without changing the location and lifestyle), and settle in the already finished complex.
In this case, to create a work environment and a virtual community is not necessary to use any engine, and virtual worlds. It is about the real world completely. Virtual work environment is allowing to be manipulated with the help of robots in the real world, as well as allowing users to interact (community members). The working environment can be a project management system, such as volunteer labor exchanges, I intended to make a project management system Redmine: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1ivySvh40TO1ytDTaEwgR1IYOes_Z2A6uavMfJOZ1Y9E/edit
- Education:
Robot will be able to study in humans, copying any action and thus mastering activities. Most training will involve the imitation of human hand movements, as robot arm function and device manipulators similar to human hands.
- Setting goals, objectives and priorities for the calculation of (turns) implementation.
Constant study of objects and processes of the working environment and new objects, the calculation of the amount of work and the calculation of priority (order) execution. For example, washing the dishes will be more important than wet cleaning. If a new object, task, process - assessment of his condition, the need for action and, if necessary, is the assessment of priority compared to the current tasks, queuing, or in the case of priority (highest priority) - switch to using it. Or, conversely, the termination of the appearance of a process, for example, when a person in the work area, the robot during the task with low priority, in order not to interfere with a person can move to another location to do something else. Thus, the allocation will be made permanent task priorities, potential Superfund (eg, in case of emergency or very important urgent tasks, direct instruction or order of a person). Then the task is queued.
Task settings can be summarized in the table:
Key:
Importance
Urgency
The time required to perform
Current priority
Subtasks (stages). At each stage - the ability to interrupt, damage from a safe and sudden termination (for the sake of extended task).
Supplemental:
Energy costs
The length of the path of the
Positive or negative impact on other processes
- Optimization of the tasks and self-development:
To a variety of tasks, you can apply technology taymmenedzhmenta.
Each task can be decomposed into elementary subtasks up to the most basic actions to which we can apply technology to optimize time and energy. To compare the effectiveness of different combinations you can imagine the sequence of actions in a table, where each line - the characteristics of the action: execution time, the trajectory of movement, power, interference with other processes defined levels of significance and positive impact on the contrary to other processes, the relationship of action (the compatibility of each in sequence) and the possibility of changing the sequence of actions. Necessary to distinguish the useful actions related to direct the execution of tasks and single (intermediate) associated with the position of the robot and its parts in space for the transition from the previous step to the next. The available data can be used to optimize the mathematical apparatus of the time, energy, accounting value (positive and negative) impact on other processes. As a simple method can be applied direct search options alternating sequence of elementary actions are compatible (with the definition of intermediate steps and calculation of parameters) within a task and the calculation of the cost of time, energy, trajectory and other parameters needed for the completion of all tasks. The results (total) compared to the sum of the current scheme (sequence), and if the new schemes designed to be more optimal for some parameters of interest, the robot keeps the scheme and is experimenting, testing the new scheme. If the calculations are justified, the robot uses a new scheme for the default for the task, and even for this kind of such problems. The robot can "share the experience" by sending data on the successful experience of the use of new patterns of action in a database accessible to other robots. Can also be sent to the problem reports using any standard schemes.
Similarly, you can optimize the various external processes in the service robot environment. Insignificant part of the robot will be able to change the process itself, and the change of more important to coordinate with the user, asking for permission. The user, making the robot's ability to improve the environment, may increase the level of trust the robot, allowing you to impact many more critical processes and process groups, without asking permission. Even if the robot is good at improving some groups of important processes, though some of them are so important that despite the resolution of some of the individual default action will still require the negotiation and will need a separate permit to carry them out without the consent of the user - while for important actions the robot will issue a warning of what may be risks of errors and the consequences of these errors. The same robot, despite the resolution of self-change processes and their groups can coordinate actions in the event that the process and its parameters deviate by a certain amount, or close out of the allowed range, in other words, if the process becomes anomalous.
Mathematical apparatus comparing ways to perform tasks will, in addition, more precisely compare the equally significant challenges and problems of the chain, when we have to choose and to decide what is better at the moment to do and which way to go to achieve its goals robot. The ultimate goals of the robot: ensuring consistency maintained environment (given the level of cleanliness and order, and harmony processes, and security), identifying ways to improve the type of project, including the identification of additional missing the tools needed to better work performance, search for ways to improve the environment and maintained its place in the processes, the performance of any new jobs from the user, ensuring the health and safety of its own, self-diagnosis and repair. In the case of all the tasks to an acceptable level robot according your setup, or suspend operations, or even to improve the environment, or to experiment on improving the quality of execution of some tasks, or may offer users to ask for help or a job is.
- Multiple commands and user interaction:
The robot can recognize voice commands or controller connects people in attendance. In this case, the interpretation of the commands necessary to consider voice tone and strength as well as the power to vote means the importance of the team. Can be used for recognition of the cloud, but are often repeated commands of the same human robot can be stored locally, recognize and respond to them more quickly. New and poorly recognized command the robot can be repeated to clarify if they are confirmed to perform. In the future, the voice commands of the same person will be recognized when compared to the locally stored fingerprints and executed without confirmation. System will be able to understand commands in different semantic forms and phrases: "Stay," "Do not touch", "It will never touch," "Caution," With this caution, "" Let's go "," Follow me! " , "look", "Learn" (to show the performance of a new work, or doing the right, which is currently running), "Bring things {name}", and the commands of standard actions, as well as specific to a given user and environment.
Users will have a different hierarchy of priorities for the interaction with the robot. At home: the highest priority - the heads of the family, and less high in other family members, the highest in the company from the owner, management, and below - the rank and file. If the robot is occupied by a higher priority request, and this time the team gets lower priority, the team continues to run higher priority. If a lower priority user insists on its priority tasks (eg, accompanied by the words "it is important and urgent", the robot may request permission or notify the higher priority user. If the robot is occupied by lower priority request and receive a higher priority order, in case of urgency and importance of lower priority tasks the robot can notify the user of higher priority that performs an important task, and ask whether a higher priority insists users to perform their jobs at the expense of an urgent and important task lower priority user.
Perhaps, the robot does not perform one's task, but simply a task a certain level of importance or having the character of continuity (which can not be interrupted until the completion or termination of a stage). In this case, the robot may find the task or phase is more important than the one specified by user. Then the robot alerts the user, the importance of the task, the complexity of their termination and the consequences of termination, notice how long you must wait until the end of execution. If the user insists that despite the impact on their task - the robot is subject to, and switches to the user's job.
It is understood that the robot control system is perceived by users as some external processes with its own unique characteristics and priorities. Based on this understanding easier to develop algorithms for the interaction of robots and humans.
- Architecture operating systems:
Controlling the robot is actually divided into several mutually independent systems operated by the main control system of the general goal setting. System can be built into a hierarchy. Therefore, in order to increase the stability and safety of the rational use of the required number of independent operating systems, within each of which is inside the container, any operating system, which provides a view of the robot functions. In order to save computational resources and the use of multiple processors simultaneously operating systems can be virtualized, such as KVM. Possible in order to increase the reliability of the most critical systems (eg, traffic administrator) need to be isolated from the others and to perform certain computational power or reserving system, which responds to emergencies, providing the basic functions and has a higher priority than the main work system, in the event of failure management of the corresponding functions (movements) switched to a reserve system.
Include the following systems: motion control, data processing of perception, position in space, environment maps and data on the surrounding objects and processes and generally known to all necessary facilities, security and permissions, power management. All systems will operate the system setting goals. Part of the system can communicate directly with each other, for example, position in space and a map of the environment, as well as motion control - this is due to the fact that in the hierarchy of systems, system position in the space is above the motor control system, as well as a device similar to the nervous human systems to build the equivalent of unconditioned reflexes to react to hazards directly and without bypassing the main control system (a person is the central nervous system). However, just as, by analogy with the person can be a mechanism of "will power" when the early central nervous system assigns the highest priority to a very important problem, and orders subsystems ignore many hazards that threaten to harm or a high risk of harm to the body.
Tags: robot, robotic arm, technology telecommuting
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